Portait of Anders Gudmundsson. Photo: Kennet Ruona

Anders Gudmundsson


Portait of Anders Gudmundsson. Photo: Kennet Ruona

Chemical composition and mass emission factors of candle smoke particles


  • Joakim Pagels
  • Aneta Wierzbicka
  • Erik Fors
  • Christina Isaxon
  • Andreas Dahl
  • Anders Gudmundsson
  • Erik Swietlicki
  • Mats Bohgard

Summary, in English

The aim of this study is to investigate the physical and chemical properties of particle emissions from candle burning in indoor air. Two representative types of tapered candies were studied during steady burn, sooting burn and smouldering (upon extinction) under controlled conditions in a walk-in stainless steel chamber. Steady burn emits relatively high number emissions of ultrafine particles dominated by either phosphates or alkali nitrates. The likely source of these particles is flame retardant additives to the wick. Sooting burn in addition emits larger particles mainly consisting of agglomerated elemental carbon. This burning mode is associated with the highest mass emission factors. Particles emitted during smouldering upon extinction are dominated by organic matter. A mass closure was illustrated for the total mass concentration, the summed mass concentration from chemical analysis and the size-integrated mass concentration assessed from number distribution measurements using empirically determined effective densities for the three particle types. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


  • Environmental Engineering
  • Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics


  • Ultrafine particles
  • Candles
  • Aerosol
  • Indoor air
  • Mass closure
  • Soot



Research group

  • Aerosol, Nuclear Physics-lup-obsolete
  • Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology-lup-obsolete


  • ISSN: 0021-8502