Your browser has javascript turned off or blocked. This will lead to some parts of our website to not work properly or at all. Turn on javascript for best performance.

The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Anne L'Huillier

Anne l'Huillier


Anne L'Huillier

Multi-purpose two- and three-dimensional momentum imaging of charged particles for attosecond experiments at 1 kHz repetition rate.


  • Erik Månsson
  • Stacey Ristinmaa Sörensen
  • Cord Arnold
  • David Kroon
  • Diego Guenot
  • Thomas Fordell
  • Franck Lépine
  • Per Johnsson
  • Anne L'Huillier
  • Mathieu Gisselbrecht

Summary, in English

We report on the versatile design and operation of a two-sided spectrometer for the imaging of charged-particle momenta in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D). The benefits of 3D detection are to discern particles of different mass and to study correlations between fragments from multi-ionization processes, while 2D detectors are more efficient for single-ionization applications. Combining these detector types in one instrument allows us to detect positive and negative particles simultaneously and to reduce acquisition times by using the 2D detector at a higher ionization rate when the third dimension is not required. The combined access to electronic and nuclear dynamics available when both sides are used together is important for studying photoreactions in samples of increasing complexity. The possibilities and limitations of 3D momentum imaging of electrons or ions in the same spectrometer geometry are investigated analytically and three different modes of operation demonstrated experimentally, with infrared or extreme ultraviolet light and an atomic/molecular beam.


  • Synchrotron Radiation Research
  • Atomic Physics

Publishing year





Review of Scientific Instruments





Document type

Journal article


American Institute of Physics (AIP)


  • Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics




  • ISSN: 1089-7623