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Photo of Axel Eriksson

Axel Eriksson

Associate senior lecturer

Photo of Axel Eriksson

Missed Evaporation from Atmospherically Relevant Inorganic Mixtures Confounds Experimental Aerosol Studies


  • Jenny Rissler
  • Calle Preger
  • Axel C. Eriksson
  • Jack J. Lin
  • Nønne L. Prisle
  • Birgitta Svenningsson

Summary, in English

Sea salt aerosol particles are highly abundant in the atmosphere and play important roles in the global radiative balance. After influence from continental air, they are typically composed of Na+, Cl-, NH4+, and SO42- and organics. Analogous particle systems are often studied in laboratory settings by atomizing and drying particles from a solution. Here, we present evidence that such laboratory studies may be consistently biased in that they neglect losses of solutes to the gas phase. We present experimental evidence from a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer and an aerosol mass spectrometer, further supported by thermodynamic modeling. We show that, at normally prevailing laboratory aerosol mass concentrations, for mixtures of NaCl and (NH4)2SO4, a significant portion of the Cl- and NH4+ ions are lost to the gas phase, in some cases, leaving mainly Na2SO4 in the dry particles. Not considering losses of solutes to the gas phase during experimental studies will likely result in misinterpretation of the data. One example of such data is that from particle water uptake experiments. This may bias the explanatory models constructed from the data and introduce errors inte predictions made by air quality or climate models.


  • LU Profile Area: Light and Materials
  • Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology
  • NanoLund: Center for Nanoscience
  • MERGE: ModElling the Regional and Global Earth system
  • LTH Profile Area: Aerosols
  • MAX IV Laboratory
  • Department of Physics
  • Nuclear physics
  • LU Profile Area: Nature-based future solutions

Publishing year







Environmental Science and Technology





Document type

Journal article


The American Chemical Society (ACS)


  • Physical Chemistry


  • hygroscopicity, thermodynamics
  • inorganic aerosol mixtures
  • sea salt
  • sea spray




  • ISSN: 0013-936X