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Portrait of Erik Lind; Photo: Kennet Ruona

Erik Lind

Professor, Coordinator Nanoelectronics & Nanophotonics

Portrait of Erik Lind; Photo: Kennet Ruona

Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium Oxide on InAs : Insight from Time-Resolved in Situ Studies


  • Giulio D'Acunto
  • Andrea Troian
  • Esko Kokkonen
  • Foqia Rehman
  • Yen Po Liu
  • Sofie Yngman
  • Zhihua Yong
  • Sarah R. McKibbin
  • Tamires Gallo
  • Erik Lind
  • Joachim Schnadt
  • Rainer Timm

Summary, in English

III-V semiconductors, such as InAs, with an ultrathin high-κ oxide layer have attracted a lot of interests in recent years as potential next-generation metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, with increased speed and reduced power consumption. The deposition of the high-κ oxides is nowadays based on atomic layer deposition (ALD), which guarantees atomic precision and control over the dimensions. However, the chemistry and the reaction mechanism involved are still partially unknown. This study reports a detailed time-resolved analysis of the ALD of high-κ hafnium oxide (HfOx) on InAs(100). We use ambient pressure X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and monitor the surface chemistry during the first ALD half-cycle, i.e., during the deposition of the metalorganic precursor. The removal of In and As native oxides, the adsorption of the Hf-containing precursor molecule, and the formation of HfOx are investigated simultaneously and quantitatively. In particular, we find that the generally used ligand exchange model has to be extended to a two-step model to properly describe the first half-cycle in ALD, which is crucial for the whole process. The observed reactions lead to a complete removal of the native oxide and the formation of a full monolayer of HfOx already during the first ALD half-cycle, with an interface consisting of In-O bonds. We demonstrate that a sufficiently long duration of the first half-cycle is essential for obtaining a high-quality InAs/HfO2 interface.


  • Synchrotron Radiation Research
  • NanoLund
  • Nano Electronics
  • MAX IV Laboratory
  • Solid State Physics

Publishing year







ACS Applied Electronic Materials





Document type

Journal article


The American Chemical Society (ACS)


  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Nano Technology


  • ambient pressure XPS
  • atomic layer deposition
  • HfO
  • InAs
  • ligand exchange
  • self-cleaning
  • TDMA-Hf



Research group

  • Nano Electronics


  • ISSN: 2637-6113