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Portrait photo of Gerda Rentschler

Gerda Rentschler

Project Coordinator

Portrait photo of Gerda Rentschler

Cadmium, mercury and lead in the blood of urban women in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, China, Ecuador and Morocco


  • Natalia Pawlas
  • Ulf Strömberg
  • Bo Carlberg
  • Milena Cerna
  • Florencia Harari
  • Raul Harari
  • Milena Horvat
  • Frantiska Hruba
  • Kvetoslava Koppova
  • Andrea Krskova
  • Mladen Krsnik
  • Yu-Feng Li
  • Lina Löfmark
  • Thomas Lundh
  • Nils-Goran Lundstrom
  • Badiaa Lyoussi
  • Iwona Markiewicz-Gorka
  • Darja Mazej
  • Josko Osredkar
  • Krystyna Pawlas
  • Gerda Rentschler
  • Vera Spevackova
  • Zdravko Spiric
  • Anneli Sundkvist
  • Janja Snoj Tratnik
  • Drazenka Vadla
  • Soumia Zizi
  • Staffan Skerfving
  • Ingvar A. Bergdahl

Summary, in English

The aim of the study was to make an international comparison of blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd), lead (B-Pb) and mercury (B-Hg) of women in seven European, and three non-European cities, and to identify determinants. About 50 women (age: 46-62) from each city were recruited (totally 480) in 2006-2009. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. Blood samples were analysed in one laboratory to avoid interlaboratory variation. Between the European cities, the B-Pb and B-Cd results vary little (range of geometric means: 13.5-27.0 mu g/l and 0.25-0.65 mu g/l, respectively); the variation of B-Hg was larger (0.40-1.38 mu g/l). Between the non-European cities the results for B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg were 19.2-68.0, 0.39-0.99 and 1.01-2.73 mu g/l, respectively. Smoking was a statistically significant determinant for B-Cd, while fish and shellfish intakes contributed to B-Hg and B-Pb, amalgam fillings also contributed to B-Hg. The present results confirm the previous results from children; the exposure to lead and cadmium varies only little between different European cities suggesting that other factors than the living area are more important. The study also confirms the previous findings of higher cadmium and lead levels in some non-European cities. The geographical variation for mercury is significant.


  • Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University

Publishing year







International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health





Document type

Journal article


De Gruyter


  • Environmental Health and Occupational Health


  • Cadmium
  • Mercury
  • Lead
  • Blood
  • Urban Women
  • European cities
  • Non-European Cities




  • ISSN: 1896-494X