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Portrait of Ivan Maximov. Photo: Kennet Ruona

Ivan Maximov

Associate Professor, Coordinator Exploratory Nanotechnology

Portrait of Ivan Maximov. Photo: Kennet Ruona

Scalable, high performance, enzymatic cathodes based on nanoimprint lithography


  • Dmitry Pankratov
  • Richard Sundberg
  • Javier Sotres
  • Dmitry Suyatin
  • Ivan Maximov
  • Sergey Shleev
  • Lars Montelius

Summary, in English

Here we detail high performance, enzymatic electrodes for oxygen bio-electroreduction, which can be easily and reproducibly fabricated with industry-scale throughput. Planar and nanostructured electrodes were built on biocompatible, flexible polymer sheets, while nanoimprint lithography was used for electrode nanostructuring. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first reports concerning the usage of nanoimprint lithography for amperometric bioelectronic devices. The enzyme (Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase) was immobilised on planar (control) and artificially nanostructured, gold electrodes by direct physical adsorption. The detailed electrochemical investigation of bioelectrodes was performed and the following parameters were obtained: open circuit voltage of approximately 0.75 V, and maximum bio-electrocatalytic current densities of 18 mu A/cm(2) and 58 mu A/cm(2) in air-saturated buffers versus 48 mu A/cm(2) and 186 mu A/cm(2) in oxygen-saturated buffers for planar and nanostructured electrodes, respectively. The half-deactivation times of planar and nanostructured biocathodes were measured to be 2 h and 14 h, respectively. The comparison of standard heterogeneous and bio-electrocatalytic rate constants showed that the improved bio-electrocatalytic performance of the nanostructured biocathodes compared to planar biodevices is due to the increased surface area of the nanostructured electrodes, whereas their improved operational stability is attributed to stabilisation of the enzyme inside nanocavities.


  • Solid State Physics
  • Neuronano Research Center (NRC)
  • NanoLund

Publishing year







Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology



Document type

Journal article




  • Nano Technology


  • bilirubin oxidase
  • bio-electrocatalysis
  • direct electron transfer
  • nanoimprint lithography
  • oxygen reduction reaction



Research group

  • Neuronano Research Center (NRC)


  • ISSN: 2190-4286