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Jakob Löndahl

Jakob Löndahl

Associate Professor / Senior Lecturer

Jakob Löndahl

A novel in-situ method to determine the respiratory tract deposition of carbonaceous particles reveals dangers of public commuting in highly polluted megacity


  • Leizel Madueño
  • Simonas Kecorius
  • Jakob Löndahl
  • Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis
  • Alfred Wiedensohler
  • Mira Pöhlker

Summary, in English

Background: Exposure to air pollutants is one of the major environmental health risks faced by populations globally. Information about inhaled particle deposition dose is crucial in establishing the dose–response function for assessing health-related effects due to exposure to air pollution. Objective: This study aims to quantify the respiratory tract deposition (RTD) of equivalent black carbon (BC) particles in healthy young adults during a real-world commuting scenario, analyze factors affecting RTD of BC, and provide key parameters for the assessment of RTD. Methods: A novel in situ method was applied to experimentally determine the RTD of BC particles among subjects in the highly polluted megacity of Metro Manila, Philippines. Exposure measurements were made for 40 volunteers during public transport and walking. Results: The observed BC exposure concentration was up to 17-times higher than in developed regions. The deposition dose rate (DDR) of BC was up to 3 times higher during commute inside a public transport compared to walking (11.6 versus 4.4 μg hr−1, respectively). This is twice higher than reported in similar studies. The average BC mass deposition fraction (DF) was found to be 43 ± 16%, which can in large be described by individual factors and does not depend on gender. Conclusions: Commuting by open-sided public transport, commonly used in developing regions, poses a significant health risk due to acquiring extremely high doses of carcinogenic traffic-related pollutants. There is an urgent need to drastically update air pollution mitigation strategies for reduction of dangerously high emissions of BC in urban setting in developing regions. The presented mobile measurement set-up to determine respiratory tract deposition dose is a practical and cost-effective tool that can be used to investigate respiratory deposition in challenging environments.


  • Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology
  • Metalund
  • NanoLund: Center for Nanoscience

Publishing year





Particle and Fibre Toxicology





Document type

Journal article


BioMed Central (BMC)


  • Environmental Health and Occupational Health


  • Air pollution
  • Black carbon
  • Health effects
  • Lung deposition
  • Toxicity
  • Traffic-related particulates
  • Transport microenvironment




  • ISSN: 1743-8977