The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Jan-Eric Ståhl

Jan-Eric Ståhl


Jan-Eric Ståhl

Onset of the degradation of CVD α-Al2O3 coating during turning of Ca-treated steels


  • Axel Bjerke
  • Andrii Hrechuk
  • Filip Lenrick
  • Rachid M'Saoubi
  • Henrik Larsson
  • Andreas Markström
  • Thomas Björk
  • Susanne Norgren
  • Jan Eric Ståhl
  • Volodymyr Bushlya

Summary, in English

The ability to control the shape, distribution and composition of non-metallic inclusions has had an important impact on many aspects of steel making. One such impact is on the machinability. Ca-treatments have shown to be able to reduce the abrasiveness of oxide inclusions, improve chip-breaking and lead to formation of deposits that reduce tool wear. However, machining Ca-treated steels with Al2O3 coated cemented carbide tools has not been as advantageous as expected. This study investigates the mechanisms behind the anomalous wear of Al2O3 coatings when turning soft Ca-treated steels. Longitudinal turning tests at a range of speeds (vc = 100–600 m/min) show rapid localized degradation of the Al2O3 coating limited to the sliding zone. Detailed analysis of the degradation mechanisms was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrate a presence of chemical interactions between the alumina coating and non-metallic inclusions. The interaction resulted in the formation of mainly calcium aluminates and partly alumina-magnesia spinel. In-operando infrared thermography measurements indicate cutting temperatures of 850–1000 °C. Thermodynamic calculations give that CaO and MgO readily reacts with Al2O3, while the reaction with CaS requires presence of additional oxygen at these cutting conditions. Additional turning experiments investigate the influence of oxygen by controlling the cutting environment by adding oxygen (compressed air) or removing oxygen (supply argon). These additional tests show that the presence of additional oxygen has a limited impact on the possible Ca–Al2O3 interaction. This demonstrat a potential for further machinability improvements by controlling the chemical interaction between Ca and Mg based non-metallic inclusions and alumina coatings.


  • SPI: Sustainable Production Initiative
  • NanoLund: Center for Nanoscience
  • Production and Materials Engineering

Publishing year








Document type

Journal article




  • Metallurgy and Metallic Materials


  • Cutting tools
  • CVD coatings
  • Electron microscopy
  • Optical microscopy
  • Steel
  • Wear modelling




  • ISSN: 0043-1648