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Portrait of Joakim Pagels

Joakim Pagels

Senior Lecturer

Portrait of Joakim Pagels

Emissions and exposures of graphene nanomaterials, titanium dioxide nanofibers, and nanoparticles during down-stream industrial handling


  • Karin Lovén
  • Sara M. Franzén
  • Christina Isaxon
  • Maria E. Messing
  • Johan Martinsson
  • Anders Gudmundsson
  • Joakim Pagels
  • Maria Hedmer

Summary, in English

Today, engineered nanomaterials are frequently used. Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been extensively used for many years and graphene is one type of emerging nanomaterial. Occupational airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials are important to ensure safe workplaces and to extend the information needed for complete risk assessments. The main aim of this study was to characterize workplace emissions and exposure of graphene nanoplatelets, graphene oxide, TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) and nanoparticles (NPs) during down-stream industrial handling. Surface contaminations were also investigated to assess the potential for secondary inhalation exposures. In addition, a range of different sampling and aerosol monitoring methods were used and evaluated. The results showed that powder handling, regardless of handling graphene nanoplatelets, graphene oxide, TiO2 NFs, or NPs, contributes to the highest particle emissions and exposures. However, the exposure levels were below suggested occupational exposure limits. It was also shown that a range of different methods can be used to selectively detect and quantify nanomaterials both in the air and as surface contaminations. However, to be able to make an accurate determination of which nanomaterial that has been emitted a combination of different methods, both offline and online, must be used.


  • NanoLund: Center for Nanoscience
  • Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology
  • Solid State Physics
  • Medical Radiation Physics, Malmö
  • Metalund
  • Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University

Publishing year







Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology





Document type

Journal article


Nature Publishing Group


  • Nano Technology
  • Environmental Health and Occupational Health


  • Aerosol
  • Direct-reading instruments
  • Electron microscopy
  • Occupational exposure
  • PIXE
  • Thermal-optical carbon analysis



Research group

  • Medical Radiation Physics, Malmö


  • ISSN: 1559-064X