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Portrait of Joakim Pagels

Joakim Pagels

Senior Lecturer

Portrait of Joakim Pagels

Identification and characterization of design fires and particle emissions to be used in performance-based fire design of nuclear facilities

Author

  • Darko Perović
  • Patrick Van Hees
  • Dan Madsen
  • Vilhelm Malmborg
  • Louise Gren
  • Joakim Pagels
  • Oriol Rios
  • Saverio La Mendola

Summary, in English

CERN operates one of the most complex particle accelerator facilities in the world. Several different hazards, including fires, are present and need to be investigated and reduced to a tolerable level. Toward this goal, CERN aims at developing a catalog containing detailed fire dynamics descriptions of combustible items present in its facilities. This paper contributes to this catalog in two ways. First, through the development of a design fire calculator for electrical cabinets that allows the determination of potential design fire curves for any number of electrical cabinets/racks. The second contribution was to experimentally characterize the smoke production rates and smoke particle properties of the most common cables and insulating oils used at CERN by coupling a fast particle mobility analyzer to a cone calorimeter. The two particle size modes (accumulation and nucleation mode) could be linked to the fire properties and heat release rate. Accumulation mode particles (~200 nm) were associated with high heat release rates and high soot emissions from the flame. This study identifies a necessity to consider ultrafine particle emissions with low mass emissions but high number emissions in relation to risk assessments pertaining to nuclear facilities and dispersion of radioactive aerosols to the surrounding environment.

Department/s

  • Division of Fire Safety Engineering
  • Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology
  • NanoLund: Center for Nanoscience

Publishing year

2021

Language

English

Pages

1008-1024

Publication/Series

Fire and Materials

Volume

45

Issue

8

Document type

Journal article

Publisher

John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Topic

  • Other Civil Engineering

Keywords

  • CERN
  • design-fires
  • DMS500
  • electrical cabinet fire
  • particle size distribution
  • smoke

Status

Published

ISBN/ISSN/Other

  • ISSN: 0308-0501