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Portrait of Joakim Pagels

Joakim Pagels

Senior Lecturer

Portrait of Joakim Pagels

Laboratory evaluation of a gasifier particle sampling system using model compounds of different particle morphology


  • Patrik Nilsson
  • Azhar Malik
  • Joakim Pagels
  • Magnus Lindskog
  • Jenny Rissler
  • Anders Gudmundsson
  • Mats Bohgard
  • Mehri Sanati

Summary, in English

The objective of this work was to design and evaluate an experimental setup to be used for field studies of particle formation in biomass gasification processes. The setup includes a high-temperature dilution probe and a denuder to separate solid particles from condensable volatile material. The efficiency of the setup to remove volatile material from the sampled stream and the influence from condensation on particles with different morphologies is presented. In order to study the sampling setup model, aerosols were created with a nebulizer to produce compact and solid KCl particles and a diffusion flame burner to produce agglomerated and irregular soot particles. The nebulizer and soot generator was followed by an evaporation–condensation section where volatile material, dioctylsebacete (DOS), was added to the system as a tar model compound. The model aerosol particles were heated to 200°C to create a system containing both solid particles and volatile organic material in gas phase. The heated aerosol particles were sampled and diluted at the same temperature with the dilution probe. Downstream the probe, the DOS was adsorbed in the denuder. This was achieved by slowly decreasing the temperature of the diluted sample towards ambient level in the denuder. Thereby the supersaturation of organic vapors was reduced which decreased the probability for tar condensation and nucleation of new particles. Both the generation system and the sampling technique gave reproducible results. A DOS collection efficiency of >99% was achieved if the denuder inlet concentration was diluted to less than 1–6 mg/m3 depending on the denuder flow rate. Concentrations higher than that lead to significant impact on the resulting KCl size distribution. The choice of model compounds was done to study the effect from the particle morphology on the achieved particle characteristics after the sampling setup. When similar amounts of volatile material condensed on soot agglomerates and compact particles, a substantially smaller growth in mobility diameter was found for soot compared with compact KCl.


  • Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health
  • NanoLund: Center for Nanoscience

Publishing year





Biomass Conversion & Biorefinery





Document type

Journal article




  • Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics


  • High temperature particle sampling
  • gasification
  • biomass
  • denuder
  • model aerosol
  • tar
  • particle morphology
  • APM
  • effective density
  • soot