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Portrait of Joakim Pagels

Joakim Pagels

Senior Lecturer

Portrait of Joakim Pagels

Biomarkers after Controlled Inhalation Exposure to Exhaust from Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO)


  • Annette M. Krais
  • Julie Y. Essig
  • Louise Gren
  • Carolina Vogs
  • Eva Assarsson
  • Katrin Dierschke
  • Jörn Nielsen
  • Bo Strandberg
  • Joakim Pagels
  • Karin Broberg
  • Christian H. Lindh
  • Anders Gudmundsson
  • Aneta Wierzbicka

Summary, in English

Hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) is a renewable diesel fuel used to replace petroleum diesel. The organic compounds in HVO are poorly characterized; therefore, toxicological properties could be different from petroleum diesel exhaust. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure and effective biomarkers in 18 individuals after short-term (3 h) exposure to HVO exhaust and petroleum diesel exhaust fumes. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze urinary biomarkers. A proximity extension assay was used for the measurement of inflammatory proteins in plasma samples. Short-term (3 h) exposure to HVO exhaust (PM1 ~1 µg/m3 and ~90 µg/m3 for vehicles with and without exhaust aftertreatment systems, respectively) did not increase any exposure biomarker, whereas petroleum diesel exhaust (PM1 ~300 µg/m3 ) increased urinary 4-MHA, a biomarker for p-xylene. HVO exhaust from the vehicle without exhaust aftertreatment system increased urinary 4-HNE-MA, a biomarker for lipid peroxidation, from 64 ng/mL urine (before exposure) to 141 ng/mL (24 h after exposure, p < 0.001). There was no differential expression of plasma inflammatory proteins between the HVO exhaust and control exposure group. In conclusion, short-term exposure to low concentrations of HVO exhaust did not increase urinary exposure biomarkers, but caused a slight increase in lipid peroxidation associated with the particle fraction.


  • Applied Mass Spectrometry in Environmental Medicine
  • NanoLund: Center for Nanoscience
  • MERGE: ModElling the Regional and Global Earth system
  • Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health
  • Genetic Occupational and Environmental Medicine
  • Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University

Publishing year





International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health





Document type

Journal article




  • Environmental Health and Occupational Health


  • Aerosol
  • Biomarkers
  • Exposure studies
  • HVO
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • Renewable diesel



Research group

  • Applied Mass Spectrometry in Environmental Medicine
  • Genetic Occupational and Environmental Medicine


  • ISSN: 1661-7827