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Knut Deppert

Knut Deppert


Knut Deppert

Generation and characterization of stable, highly concentrated titanium dioxide nanoparticle aerosols for rodent inhalation studies


  • Wolfgang G. Kreyling
  • Pratim Biswas
  • Maria Messing
  • Neil Gibson
  • Marianne Geiser
  • Alexander Wenk
  • Manoranjan Sahu
  • Knut Deppert
  • Izabela Cydzik
  • Christoph Wigge
  • Otmar Schmid
  • Manuela Semmler-Behnke

Summary, in English

The intensive use of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles in many different applications necessitates studies on their risk assessment as there are still open questions on their safe handling and utilization. For reliable risk assessment, the interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) with biological systems ideally needs to be investigated using physico-chemically uniform and well-characterized NP. In this article, we describe the reproducible production of TiO2 NP aerosols using spark ignition technology. Because currently no data are available on inhaled NP in the 10-50 nm diameter range, the emphasis was to generate NP as small as 20 nm for inhalation studies in rodents. For anticipated in vivo dosimetry analyses, TiO2 NP were radiolabeled with V-48 by proton irradiation of the titanium electrodes of the spark generator. The dissolution rate of the V-48 label was about 1% within the first day. The highly concentrated, polydisperse TiO2 NP aerosol (3-6 x 10(6) cm(-3)) proved to be constant over several hours in terms of its count median mobility diameter, its geometric standard deviation, and number concentration. Extensive characterization of NP chemical composition, physical structure, morphology, and specific surface area was performed. The originally generated amorphous TiO2 NP were converted into crystalline anatase TiO2 NP by thermal annealing at 950 A degrees C. Both crystalline and amorphous 20-nm TiO2 NP were chain agglomerated/aggregated, consisting of primary particles in the range of 5 nm. Disintegration of the deposited TiO2 NP in lung tissue was not detectable within 24 h.


  • Solid State Physics
  • Nanometer structure consortium (nmC)-lup-obsolete
  • NanoLund
  • MERGE - ModElling the Regional and Global Earth system

Publishing year







Journal of Nanoparticle Research





Document type

Journal article




  • Nano Technology


  • Titanium dioxide
  • Anatase
  • Amorphous TiO2
  • Spark ignition
  • Chain
  • aggregate/agglomerate
  • Nanoparticle generation
  • Transmission electron
  • microscopy
  • Elemental microanalysis
  • Electron tomography
  • Environmental
  • health and safety (EHS)



Research group

  • Nanometer structure consortium (nmC)-lup-obsolete


  • ISSN: 1572-896X