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Maria Thereza Perez

Senior Lecturer

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Comparison of fractal and grid electrodes for studying the effects of spatial confinement on dissociated retinal neuronal and glial behavior


  • Saba Moslehi
  • Conor Rowland
  • Julian H. Smith
  • Willem Griffiths
  • William J. Watterson
  • Cristopher M. Niell
  • Benjamín J. Alemán
  • Maria Thereza Perez
  • Richard P. Taylor

Summary, in English

Understanding the impact of the geometry and material composition of electrodes on the survival and behavior of retinal cells is of importance for both fundamental cell studies and neuromodulation applications. We investigate how dissociated retinal cells from C57BL/6J mice interact with electrodes made of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes grown on silicon dioxide substrates. We compare electrodes with different degrees of spatial confinement, specifically fractal and grid electrodes featuring connected and disconnected gaps between the electrodes, respectively. For both electrodes, we find that neuron processes predominantly accumulate on the electrode rather than the gap surfaces and that this behavior is strongest for the grid electrodes. However, the ‘closed’ character of the grid electrode gaps inhibits glia from covering the gap surfaces. This lack of glial coverage for the grids is expected to have long-term detrimental effects on neuronal survival and electrical activity. In contrast, the interconnected gaps within the fractal electrodes promote glial coverage. We describe the differing cell responses to the two electrodes and hypothesize that there is an optimal geometry that maximizes the positive response of both neurons and glia when interacting with electrodes.


  • Ophthalmology, Lund
  • Nanomaterials for retinal prostheses
  • NanoLund: Center for Nanoscience

Publishing year





Scientific Reports





Document type

Journal article


Nature Publishing Group


  • Analytical Chemistry



Research group

  • Nanomaterials for retinal prostheses


  • ISSN: 2045-2322