Your browser has javascript turned off or blocked. This will lead to some parts of our website to not work properly or at all. Turn on javascript for best performance.

The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Portrait of Reine Wallenberg. Photo: Kennet Ruona

Reine Wallenberg

Professor, Coordinator Materials Science

Portrait of Reine Wallenberg. Photo: Kennet Ruona

XEDS-mapping for explaining release patterns from single pellets


  • Pernilla Nevsten
  • Per Borgquist
  • Anders Axelsson
  • Reine Wallenberg

Summary, in English

A common way to formulate controlled-release (CR) pharmaceuticals is to coat pellets of active substance with a polymer film, decrease the size of the pellets and distribute them as multiple-unit dosages in capsules. To increase the understanding of the release mechanism, the pellet shape and surface structure of pellets, before and after release in microtitre plates, have been studied by scanning electron microscope and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry. By performing these studies we associate release profiles during the first few hours to the microscopic structure. Pellets were divided into three classes (spherical pellets, dumbbell shaped pellets and twin-pellets) according to pellet form. Cases of burst release occurred for all three shape classes due to "open-window-defects" at the surface. Areas of thinner polymer film in the neck-region of dumbbell shaped pellets broaden the range of intermediate release rates for this pellet shape. The surface of twin pellets and dumbbell shaped pellets showed more defects, which increases the release rates in comparison to spherical pellets. All pellets with high release rates revealed ruptures in the polymer film, whereas only small cracks could be traced for pellets with slow release rates. The information gained is necessary for the development of future formulations and mathematical modelling of release patterns. The pharmaceutical used as model was remoxipride coated with a polymer film of ethyl cellulose and 10 wt.% triethyl citrate. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


  • Centre for Analysis and Synthesis
  • Department of Chemical Engineering

Publishing year







International Journal of Pharmaceutics





Document type

Journal article




  • Chemical Engineering
  • Chemical Sciences




  • ISSN: 1873-3476